FERGUSON 2011 Coccidian enteric parasites (includes references relevant to Nepal)
- Rapid diagnostic tests for Cryptosporidium are effective- often combined with a giardia test. However as the illness is self-limited in the immunocompetent, testing probably not relevant. Highly relevant for immunocompromised patients where treatment is required.
- Life cycle of Cryptosporidium.
- Two PNG- associated references:
Seroepidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in children in Papua New Guinea and Australia.Groves VJ1, Lehmann D, Gilbert GL. Epidemiol Infect. 1994 Dec;113(3):491-9.
Enzyme immunoassays (EIA) were used to measure serum antibodies to Cryptosporidium in four immunocompetent adults with recent proven cryptosporidial infection, 379 healthy children and 73 adult volunteers in Melbourne, Australia, and 205 children in Papua New Guinea (PNG) (47 healthy children; 158 with pneumonia). Antibodies peaked 3-6 weeks after infection and fell to baseline within a few months. A high level (5000 EIA units/ml) or a significant change between paired sera, of IgG or IgM, were taken as evidence of recent infection and found in 24% of PNG children and in 8% of children and 5% of adults in Melbourne. Among PNG children with pneumonia who had high cryptosporidial antibody levels, those with measles (6/8) were significantly more likely (P = 0.002) to have diarrhoea than the remainder (4/28). Symptomatic cryptosporidiosis may be associated with transient immune suppression due to viral infection. This study indicates that serological surveys can contribute to an understanding of the epidemiology of cryptosporidosis.
Cryptosporidium species in sheep and goats from Papua New Guinea. Exp Parasitol. 2014 Jun;141:134-7.
Species of Cryptosporidium are extensively recognised as pathogens of domesticated livestock and poultry, companion animals, wildlife, and are a threat to public health. Little is known of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans, domesticated animals or wildlife in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The aim of the present study was to screen sheep and goats for Cryptosporidium using molecular tools. A total of 504 faecal samples were collected from sheep (n=276) and goats (n=228) in village, government and institutional farms in PNG. Samples were screened by nested PCR and genotyped at the 18S rRNA and at the 60kDa glycoprotein (gp60) loci. The overall prevalences were 2.2% for sheep (6/278) and 4.4% (10/228) for goats. The species/genotypes identified were Cryptosporidium hominis (subtype IdA15G1) in goats (n=6), Cryptosporidium parvum (subtypes IIaA15G2R1and IIaA19G4R1) in sheep (n=4) and in goats (n=2), Cryptosporidium andersoni (n=1) and Cryptosporidium scrofarum (n=1) in sheep, Cryptosporidium xiao (n=1) and Cryptosporidium rat genotype II (n=1) in goats. This is the first report of Cryptosporidium spp. identified in sheep and goats in PNG. Identification of Cryptosporidium in livestock warrants better care of farm animals to avoid contamination and illness in vulnerable population. The detection of zoonotic Cryptosporidium in livestock suggests these animals may serve as reservoirs for human infection.